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QUALITY OF CHARCOAL OBTAINED FROM Eucalyptus camaldulensis
The quality of charcoal produced from wood depends on its intrinsic properties, on the carbonization process and the requirements of the potential market. The domestic consumption has lower quality standards than those for the industrial coal of the European market (volatile substances, ash and moisture contents, fixed carbon and higher heating value). In this study, the quality of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh charcoal (produced in an improved low-production Japanese metal kiln) was evaluated. The basic density of the wood was determined by the Archimedes principle. The moisture content was evaluated according to ASTM-D4442, and the volatile material, ash and fixed carbon content by following the ASTM-D1762-84. As for the higher heating value, a Parr 6200 adiabatic calorimeter was used. A multivariate analysis of the variance was done with the charcoal quality factors using the SAS 9.0® software. The results showed average values of 0.61 g/cm3 for the basic density of the wood; 5.1% moisture content, 21.2% volatile material, 0.4% ash, 78.4% fixed carbon and 7,289.5 cal.g-1 for heating value for the charcoal under study. From the correlation analysis of the quality factors obtained, it was observed that the fixed carbon had a strong negative relationship with the volatile material (-0.998), as well as the fixed carbon with the moisture content (-0.924). On the other hand, the moisture content showed a strong positive relationship with volatile material (0.913). From these studies, it can be concluded that the quality of the charcoal obtained meet the requirements of the European market, except in the content of volatile material that exceeds the required 9%, with the correlations obtained it is possible to manipulate the temperature of the carbonization process in order to obtain the desired quality of the charcoal.