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Biocomposites of poly lactic acid (PLA) and Chitosan reinforced with Cellulose Nanocrystals, for potential applications in cartilage regeneration: A review.
Currently arthrosis affects more than 50% of the world population over 65 years old, which implies damage to the joint, being the articular cartilage lesions of the knee the most common with an incidence of 240 people per year of each 100,000.
The high incidence of cartilage injuries has led to new treatments being investigated based on the application of tissue engineering biomaterials obtained from matrices made with different polymers of natural origin. The Biomaterials provide a 3D space so that cells to form a new tissue with the structure and function appropriate. The biomaterials could play an important role as scaffolds to support structures for tissue regeneration, and should accomplish the following characteristics: biodegradable, biocompatible and non-toxic.
The objective of this paper is to present a review of biocomposites elaborated with synthetic and natural origin materials, such as Cellulose Nanocrystals (CNC), Chitosan and Poly Lactic Acid, in order to demonstrate their physicochemical behavior (surface, porosity, mechanical properties, water absorption capacity) and biological properties (biodegradability and biocompatibility). Additionally, it was a search related to use CNC biomaterials as tissue receptor, support system for the regeneration or restoration of damaged cartilage in degenerative processes such as osteoarthritis.