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Species with potential for pulp for paper production from two plant communities in Mexico
Mexico has a great diversity of vegetation types in which numerous tree species are represent. The cloud forest (CF) and the tropical deciduous forest (TDF) possess a high diversity of tree species. The main objective of this work was to evaluate wood fiber features of 102 species, 42 of the CF and 60 of the TDF, by means of the coefficients of rigidity, flexibility, slenderness and the Runkel ratio to identify potential species for multipurpose use. The length of fibers of the CF / TDF was classified as short in 55% / 67% (< 900 μm) of the species and only in 7% as long (> 1600 μm), in the CF. The fiber wall thickness was grouped in percentage with respect to the total diameter as very thin (< 25%) in 10% / 2% of the species; thin (26-36%) in 21% / 17%; thick (36-50%) in 30% / 25%; and very thick (> 50%) in 54% / 55%. According to the Runkel ratio, fibers of the species studied may have excellent quality (2% only in CF), very good (33% / 13%), good (38% / 32%), or fair (19% / 32%) to produce pulp for paper and only 7% / 23% can be considered bad. Thus, 92% of CF species and 77% of the TDF showed desirable attributes for elaborating pulp. These results are related to the rigidity and flexibility coefficients. The fibers with thin walls tend to collapse with good contact surface, as well as good fiber-fiber bonding as for and medium to long lengths allow for greater resistance to paper tearing as for Alnus acuminata, Populus simorea, Spondias purpurea and Trema micrantha. This study provides information to select a diversity of species for reforestation in each community to obtain pulp for paper in Mexico.